If you compare INCI compositions or descriptions of ingredients, please note:
- Based on frequent updates of the European INCI database which will promptly be integrated into the KOKO web pages, the actual compositions may temporarily deviate from the compositions printed on the labels of currently sold products.
- The INCI data published in commercial internet portals which evaluate products on the basis of their ingredients may be defective as the information usually is entered by external users.
- Commercial portals pursue interests of their own. Users of commercial internet portals can find information on the portal provider in the site notice. The site policy informs on which objective data bases have been used for evaluation purposes.
- The website http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing of the European Commission informs on the functionality of ingredients. Information on this website may be incomplete or not yet reflect the current data.
- KOKO neither monitors nor rectifies official or commercial internet portals that provide information on cosmetic products on the market and the ingredients of cosmetic products.
The present documentation is intended to provide readers with additional interesting information to answer FAQs with regard to the following substances and substance groups. Please contact us via mail or phone if particular answers are missing or if you would like to have additional in-depth information.
Since the subject areas are rather complex and cannot be fully covered in the present documentation, you will find references to articles published in specialist journals and periodicals for more detailed information.
The articles can be downloaded from our website as html or pdf files. Please respect the copyright when using them.
- dermaviduals® preparations contain alcohol (INCI: alcohol) in food grade quality
- Unlike denatured alcohol (INCI: Alcohol Denat.) food grade alcohol neither is tax-advantaged nor does it contain hidden plasticizers such as Diethyl Phthalate.
- The low alcohol concentrations in dermaviduals® preparations have no dehydrating effects on the skin.
- dermaviduals® preparations are free of preservatives.
- Preservatives are listed in the Appendix of the German Cosmetic Directive (KVO). They are effective in low concentrations and all of them have allergic potential. Therefore they are subject to a licensing procedure.
- Microbiological stability of aqueous dermaviduals® preparations are ensured as described in the following.
- Practically all of the low molecular, readily water-soluble substances have preservative features in higher concentrations. Among these substances are foods and natural substances of the skin as for instance salt (example: salted herrings), sugar (example: honey), alcohol, sorbitol (natural sugar alcohol) and glycerin (trivalent alcohol). These substances will not trigger allergic reactions under normal circumstances. Said effect is based on physical properties and intensified by the alcoholic functionality. Microorganisms cannot survive in these aqueous solutions.
- Glycols (bivalent alcohols) such as propylene glycol (INCI: Propylene Glycol), butylene glycol (INCI: Butylene Glycol), pentylene glycol INCI: Pentylene Glycol), hexylene glycol (INCI: Hexylene Glycol), decylene glycol (INCI: Decylene Glycol) and caprylyl glycol (INCI: Caprylyl Glycol) have similar preservative properties. Like almost all the water-soluble substances, glycols also bind water (moisturizer effect) and are easily biodegradable. The tolerance of propylene glycol is covered in the referenced articles.
- Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) constitute an exception here; dermaviduals® preparations are free of polyethylene glycols.
- The above-mentioned water-soluble substances used in dermaviduals® preparations are dosed in such a manner that they have moisture-retaining and antimicrobial effects on the one hand but will not irritate the skin. Glycerin and alcohol will not dehydrate the skin in these particular concentrations.
- The expiry dates of dermaviduals® preparations reach from 12 to 36 months and after opening from 3 to 6 months (symbol: opened jar). Low expiry dates do not result from lacking preservatives but from oxygen sensitive essential fatty acids and vitamins.
- M. Gloor, K. Thoma und J. Fluhr, Dermatologische Externatherapie, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2000, S. 146-147
- Appendix V of the German Cosmetic Directive (KVO): "List of the preservatives permitted for cosmetic products" (revised: 18.9.2014)
- H. Lautenschläger, Preservatives, Kosmetische Praxis 2005 (2), 6-8
- H. Lautenschläger, Versatile use - alcohols in skin care products, Kosmetische Praxis 2009 (6),13-15
- The content of the pure vegetable oils in the 20 ml pipette bottles or 100 ml supply bottles is about 99.8 per cent.
- The remaining 0.2 percent relate to the anti-oxidative vitamins C and E dissolved in neutral oil and alcohol (INCI: Alcohol, Tocopherol, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbic Acid, Citric Acid). Citric acid absorbs the catalytic-acting traces of heavy metals that can find their way into the oils during use. The additives protect the sensitive oils that contain essential (unsaturated) acids.
- Some of the oils, such as for instance avocado oil, tend to flocculate when stored in the refrigerator; the flocculation dissolves with heating and is an indicator for the high content of skin caring phytosterols, or in other words, for the excellent quality of the product.
- INCI terms such as Olus Oil and Vegetable Oil generally relate to rapeseed (also canola) oil.
- Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (neutral oil) is gained by refining of coconut oil. KOKO does not use palm kernel oil. Details about palm oils are described in: "Substitution of renewable oils and fats in skin care products?"
- H. Lautenschläger, Vegetable oils, Kosmetik International 2009 (1), 16-18
- H. Lautenschläger, Vegetable oils and extracts - essential components, Kosmetische Praxis 2007 (4), 8-10
- H. Lautenschläger, Substitution of renewable oils and fats in skin care products?, http://www.dermaviduals.de/english/skin-topics/question---answer/substitution-of-renewable-oils-and-fats.html
- dermaviduals® preparations are free of perfumes.
- Natural essential oils are used as components of products that will not remain on the skin (so-called rinse-off-products), such as Cleansing gel and Total cleansing cream. They cover the inherent smell of the cleansing sugar tensides.
- Sage oil and farnesol serve as deodorant agents in our DMS® deodorant cream.
- In compliance with the German Cosmetic Directive (KVO), particular ingredients of essential oils are additionally declared, such as for instance Geraniol, Citronellol, Limonene and Citral. They have allergic potential in the case of allergy prone skin. The risk is nominal though since the cleansing products are rinsed off.
- H. Lautenschläger, On substances that release emotions - a tour across the world of perfumes, Kosmetische Praxis 2010 (5), 10-14
- H. Lautenschläger, Fragrance sample? Aldehydes and ketones, Kosmetik International 2010 (5), 42-44
- H. Lautenschläger, Fragrances, vitamins and hormones - the ABC of terpenes, Beauty Forum 2010 (3), 56-58
- dermaviduals® creams are free of emulsifiers.
- Since dermaviduals® preparations are free of emulsifiers there is no need for neutralising agents such as amines, especially alkanolamines.
- Emulsifiers are avoided in order to minimize the washout of both skin barrier and fatty skin care substances when the skin comes in contact with water.
- Emulsifiers are substances that either stabilize lipids and oils as droplets in water, or vice versa, water droplets in oil. They enable the manufacturing of creams.
- In order to incorporate skin caring oils and lipids into its dermaviduals® creams, KOKO replaces emulsifiers by natural membrane substances, such as phosphatidylcholine (INCI: Lecithin, Hydrogenated Lecithin), ceramides (INCI: Ceramide 3 = Ceramide NP) and phytosterols (from shea butter, INCI: Butyrospermum Parkii). This specific technology requires high pressure homogenisation in the manufacturing process in order to produce an extremely fine membrane structure similar to the skin barrier. In the case of liposomes and nanodispersions, cellular bodies are formed with a structure and diameter that are comparable with vegetable or human cells but also with chylomicrons.
- Only in a few preparations as for instance in aqueous foundations, non-aqueous oleogels and in our Liner 2, monoglycerides such as glyceryl undecylenate, glyceryl behenate, glyceryl stearate and glyceryl caprylate are used as consistency agents. They are analogous or identical components of the hydrolipidic film of the skin and biodegradable.
- An additional feature of emulsifiers, alias tensides is their cleansing effect on the skin: combined with water, they remove fatty substances from the skin. Both Cleansing gel and Total cleansing cream contain tensides that are gentle on the skin.
- H. Lautenschläger, Emulsifiers enable mixtures, Kosmetische Praxis 2004 (3), 8-10
- H. Lautenschläger, Emulsifiers - looking for alternatives, Kosmetik International 2000 (12), 112-113
- H. Lautenschläger, From soap to high-tech emulsifiers, Beauty Forum 2010 (11), 20-22
- dermaviduals® products do not contain amines.
- Amines are auxiliary substances which serve for neutralizing anionic emulsifiers or adjusting the pH. Amines can react with atmospheric nitrogen oxides to form carcinogenic nitrosamines.
- An exception are amino acids which belong to the Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). They moisturize the skin and are able to protect the skin against atmospheric radicals.
- H. Lautenschläger, Nitrosamines in cosmetic products - risk of skin problems?, Kosmetische Praxis 2006 (6), 14-152
- H. Lautenschläger, Acids and bases from A to Z, Kosmetische Praxis 2010 (4), 13-153
- H. Lautenschläger, Omnipresent and multifunctional - amino acids in skin care, Kosmetische Praxis 2009 (3), 15-174
- H. Lautenschläger, Moisturizers for the skin care, Beauty Forum 2011 (3), 86-88 and 2011 (4), 46-49
- The viscosity of various dermaviduals® preparations is controlled by consistency or stabilizing agents. In other words, we are speaking of polysaccharides (polymer sugars) such as xanthan gum, hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, starch, cellulose and their derivatives. Other substances, as for instance low concentrations of carbomers alias polyacrylates (sodium carbomer, alkyl acrylate crosspolymer etc.), form superficially smoothing films on the skin which are permeable to water vapour.
- H. Lautenschläger, Additives in cosmetic products, Kosmetische Praxis 2004 (1), 8-10
- H. Lautenschläger, Powders, gels, creams & sticks - routes of administration, Beauty Forum 2012 (4), 54-56 & 2012 (5), 54-56
- dermaviduals® preparations are free of artificial dyes - except for synthetic carminic acid.
- Synthetic carminic acid (CI 75470) is contained in the dermaviduals® liner 3 (deco).
- dermaviduals® deco preparations, without exception, contain inorganic pigments such as iron oxide (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), iron blue (Prussian blue, CI 77510), manganese violet (CI 77742), titanium dioxide (CI 77891) and zinc oxide (CI 77947).
- H. Lautenschläger, "I cannot tolerate this product" - the influence of medical drugs on skin and skin care, Kosmetische Praxis 2009 (2), 11-14
- H. Lautenschläger, Good looks, protection and skin care all inclusive: make-up for the problem skin, Kosmetische Praxis 2006 (6), 8-9
DMS® deodorant cream
- DMS® deodorant cream has antiperspirant properties.
- KOKO uses the antiperspirant agent Aluminium Chlorohydrate (INCI) in its DMS® deodorant cream.• In contrast to the roll-on deodorants currently sold on the market, the content of 2.5% in DMS® deodorant cream is rather low. The substance is combined with barrier active DMS®. That is the reason why no irritation is reported after application of DMS® deodorant cream.
- In this context we would like to mention our recent publication entitled "Skin care at strong sweat formation" where we refer to the statements of The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and where we also make reference to the movie "The Aluminium Files".
- Main components of clay (healing earth) are insoluble aluminium hydroxide and aluminium oxide. Alum silicates form natural (rock-forming) minerals which are utilized in deco preparations. Such aluminium compounds are ubiquitous.
- H. Lautenschläger, Skin care at strong sweat formation, Ästhetische Dermatologie (mdm) 2014 (7), 32-35
dermaviduals® self tanner
- Many of the dermaviduals® preparations contain phosphatidylcholine (PC).
- The INCI terms are lecithin (= native PC; it contains bound essential fatty acids) and hydrogenated lecithin (hydrogenated PC; it contains bound saturated fatty acids).
- Phosphatidylcholine is an essential component of herbal and human cell membranes; it is extracted from soy lecithin (about 30% PC). The INCI term for PC and the original lecithin is identical: "Lecithin".
- PC is extracted by means of high pressure liquid chromatography, a process that ensures that phosphatidylcholine is free of soy proteins.
- Gene manipulated soy cannot be completely excluded. A comparison of the analyses of phosphatidylcholine from natural and from gene manipulated soy ensures that both are chemically identical.
- Hydrogenated PC (= Hydrogenated Lecithin) is gained by hydrogenation of native PC (= Lecithin).
- H. Lautenschläger, Biodegradable lamellar systems in skin care, skin protection and dermatology, SOFW-Journal 139 (8), 2-8 (2013)
- H. Lautenschläger, Phospholipids - the all-rounders, medical Beauty Forum 2014 (3), 18-20
- KOKO supplies active agent concentrates with liquid biodegradable nanoparticles and liposomes.
- Medium particle size of dermaviduals® nanoparticles is between 80 and 200 nm (depending on the product and the encapsulated active agents).
- All the nanoparticles used are biodegradable; they are not subject to the tighter safety regulations for solid and non-biodegradable nanoparticles specified in the Cosmetic Directive.
- The liquid nanoparticles of dermaviduals® preparations are already disintegrated into their components on the skin surface (stratum corneum). In this process the skin barrier layers are fluidized and the encapsulated active agents can pass the skin barrier.
- The structure forming component of nanoparticles is phosphatidylcholine (PC). Liquid nanoparticles are sometimes called nanosomes based on the term liposomes. Also the term nanoemulsion is occasionally found. It should however be mentioned that phosphatidylcholine has little in common with emulsifiers resp. emulsions. PC is a natural substance of the body and responsible for the transport of lipids in the lymphatic system and the bloodstream. PC is completely metabolized and supplies the skin with the essential substances choline, linoleic acid and small amounts of alpha-linolenic acid.
- Liposomes are the bilayer variant of nanoparticles. Their structure is oriented towards natural cells. In contrast to nanoparticles they have an aqueous interior and hence are predestined to encapsulate aqueous cosmetic and pharmaceutical active agents.
- H. Lautenschläger, Liposomes, Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology (A. O. Barel, M. Paye and H. I. Maibach), 155-163, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton 2006
- H. Lautenschläger, Nanoparticles in cosmetic products - good or bad?, Beauty Forum 2009 (5), 44-47
- H. Lautenschläger, Biodegradable lamellar systems in skin care, skin protection and dermatology, SOFW-Journal 139 (8), 2-8 (2013)
- H. Lautenschläger, Piggyback - an overview on transport systems, medical Beauty Forum 2013 (1), 16-18
Antioxidants and radical scavengers belong to the most common components of cosmetic preparations and are also used in dermaviduals® preparations - mostly in moderate dosages. Antioxidants are not appropriate for skin care in every situation, especially if there is sun exposure. That is also valid e.g. for products containing vitamins and essential oils.
Exogenous radicals are scavenged by a multitude of nitrogenous substances. Predominant are amides such as urea and amino acids as for instance glycine and methylglycine which both belong to the NMF factor and contribute to the osmolytic balance of the skin. The highest concentrations are in the lowest layer of the stratum corneum. Substances of the NMF for instance react with atmospheric nitrogen oxides into inoffensive reaction products. The clinical evidence of the NMF motivated A.M. Kligman to develop the corneotherapy.
- H. Lautenschläger, Antioxidants and radical scavengers - too much is too much, Ästhetische Dermatologie (mdm) 2015 (8), 12-16
- H. Lautenschläger, Radical scavengers as active agents: facts, new aspects and future perspectives, Kosmetische Praxis 2006 (2), 12-14
- H. Lautenschläger, Antioxidants - an overview, Kosmetik International 2013 (8), 12-15
Herbal, biotechnological or synthetic ingredients
- KOKO uses herbal, biotechnological and synthetic ingredients.
- In cases where ingredients of identical composition but different origin are available, our selection of ingredients is based on the chemical and physical analyses. KOKO, for instance, favours a synthetically produced nature identical substance of higher quality to a natural substance with minor quality.
- The reverse applies for glycerin. Natural glycerin, gained from saponification of vegetable oils, is available in excellent quality.
- Vitamins are synthetically produced in nature identical form. They are available in excellent chemical purity, a fact that spares natural resources. In the case of tocopherol (vitamin E) dl-alpha-tocopherol and dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate are used.
- H. Lautenschläger, Vitamins in cosmetics, Beauty Forum 2014 (10), 18-21 and (11), 38-40 and (12), 34-36
- The pH value of the skin surface averages approximately 5 ("acidic") and depends on gender, age and skin area. The unimpaired acid mantle of the skin supports the natural skin flora and inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
- Water and skin care products with pH of 5-7 do not disturb the acid mantle of the skin as a rule, because the natural acidic buffer recovers the original pH immediately after treatment.
- Most of the dermaviduals® products show a pH value of 6-7.
- Products with pH values of 5-6 are Aloe vera extract, Green tea extract, Hamamelis extract, Liposome concentrate Plus, Liposome NMF complex, Grape seed extract, Whitening concentrate, Kiwi seed oil nanoparticles, Linseed oil nanoparticles, Butcher's broom serum, Eye cream, Face tonic, Cleansing gel, DMS® massage cream, dermaviduals® self tanner, DMS® deodorant cream, Sun cream SPF 15.
- H. Lautenschläger, Acids and bases from A to Z, Kosmetische Praxis 2010 (4), 13-15
- H. Lautenschläger, Water and water - just not the same things: water qualities, Kosmetische Praxis 2005 (4), 8-10
- H. Lautenschläger, What influence does the pH level of skin care products have?, http://www.dermaviduals.de/english/skin-topics/question---answer/ph-wert-von-hautpflegeprodukten.html
- KOKO has never conducted animal testing.
- The tolerance of dermaviduals® preparations has been and still is exclusively tested by voluntary external test persons. (patch test)
- None of the dermaviduals® preparations on the market has ever caused an irritation.
- Efficacy testing regarding the sun protection factors (SPF) is effected in Germany.
- Further efficacy testing is not performed neither on a national nor international level.
- KOKO submits complete and detailed documentation for every single preparation including the formulation, the dosages of ingredients and the tolerance testing to national and international administrations and regulatory authorities.
- Since 2004 animal testing for cosmetics has been banned throughout Europe. There is a Europe-wide ban on the marketing of animal tested products.
- Since 2009, also animal testing of singular cosmetic ingredients has been banned. Any relating exceptions were finally banned in 2013.
- KOKO does not advertise its products with the terms "animal testing-free" or "not tested on animals", or the like. Based on the Europe-wide bans, this type of advertising would be non-compliant with the "Act on unfair competition".
- German Cosmetic Directive (KVO) and European Cosmetic Directive
- KOKO is connected to the Dual System and pays fees for recycling of packaging, including the containers.
- KOKO refrains from the Green Dot on labels and packaging, because the marking is not binding.
- Dual System
- Green Dot
Use of devices in connection with dermaviduals® products
- Device-assisted techniques and preparations allow multifunctional work: physical-physiological treatment, improved penetration of cosmetic active agents, active agent stimulation under the influence of energy, and onset of the particular active agent action.
- Skilled and experienced staff are prerequisites for the use of devices.
- H. Lautenschläger, Bioengineering of the skin - combo makes the difference, medical Beauty Forum 2015 (6), 42-45
- H. Lautenschläger, Ultrasound gels - effects, compositions, applications, Beauty Forum 2008 (12), 50-52
- H. Lautenschläger, Laser- & IPL treatments - the appropriate skin care, Beauty Forum 2009 (9), 70-72