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  Ingredients - liposomes
 
Phospholipids - the all-rounders
What does an element like phosphorus that rather is associated with the match industry have to do with skin and cosmetics? As a matter of fact, most of the processes in which the substance is involved take place without becoming aware of them. It is not exaggerating to say that phosphorus and phospholipids are absolutely vital for life.
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Biodegradable lamellar systems in skin care, skin protection and dermatology
ABSTRACT: The following review comprises background, literature and applications of biodegradable lamellar systems, their characteristics and limitations. The article is focussed on phosphatidylcholine containing preparations like liposomes, nanodispersions and derma membrane structure.
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Piggyback - an overview on transport systems
Speaking of transport systems for cosmetic active agents, we automatically think of tiny filled spherical bodies that wriggle their way through the gaps between the corneocytes and then empty their load in the deeper layer of the epidermis. That is a good story though, but unfortunately not a true one. The following article will deal with the actual facts.
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Without carriers only modest effects - Functions and effects of carriers in cosmetic products
When we talk about carriers in cosmetic products we need to distinguish between particular chemically defined substances and physical carrier bodies. In conclusion, both alternatives have the same effects: combined with active agents they increase the bioavailability. An enhanced bioavailability requires in-depth knowledge on the physiological processes in the skin and strictly contrasts with the idea of "a lot helps a lot!"
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Liposomes
INTRODUCTION: Publications about and patents on liposomes, along with their different chemical components, preparation, and use in skincare products have often been reviewed [1-4]. The reviews do not need any additional comments. Of interest are general questions, such as why liposomes should be used in cosmetics, what functionalities are expected from them, and what advantages they do provide compared with alternative formulations.The properties of the widely used main component of liposomes, phosphatidylcholine, play a key role in answering these questions. Other compounds such as niotensides and ceramides, which are naturally predestined for the preparation of liposomes, are less important today. Niotensides do not offer superior claims, and ceramides are not available in sufficient quantities and qualities at affordable prices.
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Precious load - transport of active agents
Within the field of skin care and dermatology active agents play the most important role. Appropriate transport systems ensure that active agents are transported to the areas where they are really needed.
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Active agents: liposomes, nanoparticles & co
Life can only exist in an atmosphere which provides protection against outside influences. Thus, monocellular living organisms are protected by cell membranes whereas multicellular organisms are provided with an exterior skin whose outermost layer, the epidermis also has a membrane-like structure which together with its specific composition serves as a model for cosmetic and dermatic products.
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Encapsulated substances - the capacity of carrier systems
Liposomes and nanoparticles have a high affinity to the horny layer of the skin due to their composition. With the help of these carrier systems water and oil soluble substances can easier penetrate the skin.
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Liposomes in Dermatological Preparations Part II
In Part I, some theoretical background on the structure of liposomes and their probable mechanisms of action on and in the skin were reviewed. Part II will discuss in more detail the utilization of liposomes in dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Appropriate uses are suggested, and some practical limits pointed out.
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Liposomes in Dermatological Preparations Part I
Liposomes or liposomal aggregation may have played a role in the formation of the first cell membrane on Earth. Immediately after the discovery of liposomes by Bangham, there was intense research in the pharmaceutical industry concerning their parenteral application, but without a decisive breakthrough. It was only with the success of the first liposomal cosmetic called "Capture" that it became evident that the possibilities for the application of artificial vesicles could be achieved in practice in the market place.
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Electron-microscopical Detection of Liposomes in a Skin Treatment Gel
This study is an example for the quality control of a liposomal skin care gel and shows the compatibility of liposomes based on soya phospholipids with a gel forming agent of the xanthan type. The analysis described allows imaging of liposomes in their surroundings and demonstrates that the preparation is correct as far as formulation is concerned.
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Comments concerning the legal framework for the use of liposomes in cosmetic preparations
Concerning cosmetics the same application criteria are valid for liposome formulations as for other comparable forms of application. The advertising claims for a deep acting liposome preparation must not be extended into the »drug« field. The argumentation becomes much simpler if highly unsaturated natural phospholipids are employed as raw material for the liposomes.
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The Use of Liposomes from Soya Phospholipids in Cosmetics
This article shows that on the one hand the development of the liposomes technology offers great chances for many new cosmetic products (which are very desirable from the consumer's point of view), but that on the other hand the cosmetics developer has to deal very intensively with questions of raw material selection, characterization of raw and finished products as well as the question about the biological fate of his formulations, in order to avoid risks. In this connection, soya phospholipids in the form of liposomes have much to recommend them, in view of their wide spectrum of activity and the decades of experience with these natural raw materials in food and pharmaceuticals.
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Revision: 16.05.2008